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mem.c

/*
**  This is a copyrighted work which is functionally identical to work
**  originally published in Micro Cornucopia magazine (issue #52, March-April,
**  1990) and is freely licensed by the author, Walter Bright, for any use.
*/

/*_ mem.c   Fri Jan 26 1990   Modified by: Walter Bright */
/* $Header: /home/cvs/c_cpp_reference/reference/C/CONTRIB/SNIP/mem.c,v 1.1.1.1 2000/02/24 23:01:18 tasin Exp $ */
/* Memory management package                    */

#if defined(VAX11C)
#define  __FILE__  "mem.c"
#endif

#include    <stdio.h>
#include    <stdlib.h>
#include    <io.h>

#ifndef MEM_H
#include    "mem.h"
#endif

#ifndef assert
#include    <assert.h>
#endif

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#include    <dos.h>
#endif

#if !defined(VAX11C)
#ifdef BSDUNIX
#include <strings.h>
#else
#include <string.h>
#endif
#else
extern char *strcpy(),*memcpy();
extern int strlen();
#endif  /* VAX11C */

int mem_inited = 0;           /* != 0 if initialized              */

static int mem_behavior = MEM_ABORTMSG;
static int (*fp)() = NULL;    /* out-of-memory handler      */
static int mem_count;         /* # of allocs that haven't been free'd   */
static int mem_scount;        /* # of sallocs that haven't been free'd */
static int near mem_exception(); /* called when out of memory */

/* Determine where to send error messages */
#ifdef MSDOS
#define ferr      stdout      /* stderr can't be redirected with MS-DOS */
#else
#define ferr      stderr
#endif

/*******************************/

void mem_setexception(flag,handler_fp)
#if __cplusplus
enum MEM_E flag;
#else
int flag;
#endif
int (*handler_fp)();
{
    mem_behavior = flag;
    fp = (mem_behavior == MEM_CALLFP) ? handler_fp : 0;
#if MEM_DEBUG
    assert(0 <= flag && flag <= MEM_RETRY);
#endif
}

/*************************
 * This is called when we're out of memory.
 * Returns:
 *    1:    try again to allocate the memory
 *    0:    give up and return NULL
 */

static int near mem_exception()
{   int behavior;

    behavior = mem_behavior;
    while (1)
    {
      switch (behavior)
      {
          case MEM_ABORTMSG:
#if defined(MSDOS) || defined(__OS2__)
            /* Avoid linking in buffered I/O */
          { static char msg[] = "Fatal error: out of memory\r\n";

            write(1,msg,sizeof(msg) - 1);
          }
#else
            fputs("Fatal error: out of memory\n",ferr);
#endif
            /* FALL-THROUGH */
          case MEM_ABORT:
            exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            /* NOTREACHED */
          case MEM_CALLFP:
            assert(fp);
            behavior = (*fp)();
            break;
          case MEM_RETNULL:
            return 0;
          case MEM_RETRY:
            return 1;
          default:
            assert(0);
      }
    }
}

/****************************/

#if MEM_DEBUG

#undef mem_strdup

char *mem_strdup(s)
const char *s;
{
      return mem_strdup_debug(s,__FILE__,__LINE__);
}

char *mem_strdup_debug(s,file,line)
char *file;
const char *s;
int line;
{
      char *p;

      p = s
          ? (char *) mem_malloc_debug((unsigned) strlen(s) + 1,file,line)
          : NULL;
      return p ? strcpy(p,s) : p;
}
#else
char *mem_strdup(s)
const char *s;
{
      char *p;

      p = s ? (char *) mem_malloc((unsigned) strlen(s) + 1) : NULL;
      return p ? strcpy(p,s) : p;
}

#endif /* MEM_DEBUG */

#ifdef MEM_DEBUG

static long mem_maxalloc;     /* max # of bytes allocated         */
static long mem_numalloc;     /* current # of bytes allocated           */

#define BEFOREVAL 0x12345678  /* value to detect underrun   */
#define AFTERVAL  0x87654321  /* value to detect overrun    */

#if SUN || SUN386
static long afterval = AFTERVAL;    /* so we can do &afterval     */
#endif

/* The following should be selected to give maximum probability that    */
/* pointers loaded with these values will cause an obvious crash. On    */
/* Unix machines, a large value will cause a segment fault.       */
/* MALLOCVAL is the value to set malloc'd data to.                */

#if MSDOS || __OS2__
#define BADVAL          0xFF
#define MALLOCVAL 0xEE
#else
#define BADVAL          0x7A
#define MALLOCVAL 0xEE
#endif

/* Disable mapping macros     */
#undef      mem_malloc
#undef      mem_calloc
#undef      mem_realloc
#undef      mem_free

/* Create a list of all alloc'ed pointers, retaining info about where   */
/* each alloc came from. This is a real memory and speed hog, but who   */
/* cares when you've got obscure pointer bugs.                    */

static struct mem_debug
{     struct mh
      { struct mem_debug *Mnext;    /* next in list               */
        struct mem_debug *Mprev;    /* previous value in list     */
        char *Mfile;          /* filename of where allocated            */
        int Mline;            /* line number of where allocated   */
        unsigned Mnbytes;     /* size of the allocation           */
        long Mbeforeval;      /* detect underrun of data          */
      } m;
      char data[1];           /* the data actually allocated            */
} mem_alloclist =
{
   {  (struct mem_debug *) NULL,
      (struct mem_debug *) NULL,
      "noname",
      11111,
      0,
      BEFOREVAL
   },
   AFTERVAL
};

/* Convert from a void *to a mem_debug struct.  */
#define mem_ptrtodl(p)  ((struct mem_debug *) ((char *)p - sizeof(struct mh)))

/* Convert from a mem_debug struct to a mem_ptr.      */
#define mem_dltoptr(dl) ((void *) &((dl)->data[0]))

#define next            m.Mnext
#define prev            m.Mprev
#define file            m.Mfile
#define line            m.Mline
#define nbytes          m.Mnbytes
#define beforeval m.Mbeforeval

/*****************************
 * Set new value of file,line
 */

void mem_setnewfileline(ptr,fil,lin)
void *ptr;
char *fil;
int lin;
{
    struct mem_debug *dl;

    dl = mem_ptrtodl(ptr);
    dl->file = fil;
    dl->line = lin;
}

/****************************
 * Print out struct mem_debug.
 */

static void near mem_printdl(dl)
struct mem_debug *dl;
{
#if LPTR
      fprintf(ferr,"alloc'd from file '%s' line %d nbytes %d ptr x%lx\n",
            dl->file,dl->line,dl->nbytes,mem_dltoptr(dl));
#else
      fprintf(ferr,"alloc'd from file '%s' line %d nbytes %d ptr x%x\n",
            dl->file,dl->line,dl->nbytes,mem_dltoptr(dl));
#endif
}

/****************************
 * Print out file and line number.
 */

static void near mem_fillin(fil,lin)
char *fil;
int lin;
{
      fprintf(ferr,"File '%s' line %d\n",fil,lin);
      fflush(ferr);
}

/****************************
 * If MEM_DEBUG is not on for some modules, these routines will get
 * called.
 */

void *mem_calloc(u)
unsigned u;
{
      return mem_calloc_debug(u,__FILE__,__LINE__);
}

void *mem_malloc(u)
unsigned u;
{
      return mem_malloc_debug(u,__FILE__,__LINE__);
}

void *mem_realloc(p,u)
void *p;
unsigned u;
{
      return mem_realloc_debug(p,u,__FILE__,__LINE__);
}

void mem_free(p)
void *p;
{
      mem_free_debug(p,__FILE__,__LINE__);
}    


/**************************/

void mem_freefp(p)
void *p;
{
      mem_free(p);
}

/***********************
 * Debug versions of mem_calloc(), mem_free() and mem_realloc().
 */

void *mem_malloc_debug(n,fil,lin)
unsigned n;
char *fil;
int lin;
{   void *p;

    p = mem_calloc_debug(n,fil,lin);
    if (p)
      memset(p,MALLOCVAL,n);
    return p;
}

void *mem_calloc_debug(n,fil,lin)
unsigned n;
char *fil;
int lin;
{
    struct mem_debug *dl;

    do
      dl = (struct mem_debug *)
          calloc(sizeof(*dl) + n + sizeof(AFTERVAL) - 1,1);
    while (dl == NULL && mem_exception());
    if (dl == NULL)
    {
#if 0
      printf("Insufficient memory for alloc of %d at ",n);
      mem_fillin(fil,lin);
      printf("Max allocated was: %ld\n",mem_maxalloc);
#endif
      return NULL;
    }
    dl->file = fil;
    dl->line = lin;
    dl->nbytes = n;
    dl->beforeval = BEFOREVAL;
#if SUN || SUN386 /* bus error if we store a long at an odd address */
    memcpy(&(dl->data[n]),&afterval,sizeof(AFTERVAL));
#else
    *(long *) &(dl->data[n]) = AFTERVAL;
#endif

    /* Add dl to start of allocation list */
    dl->next = mem_alloclist.next;
    dl->prev = &mem_alloclist;
    mem_alloclist.next = dl;
    if (dl->next != NULL)
      dl->next->prev = dl;

    mem_count++;
    mem_numalloc += n;
    if (mem_numalloc > mem_maxalloc)
      mem_maxalloc = mem_numalloc;
    return mem_dltoptr(dl);
}

void mem_free_debug(ptr,fil,lin)
void *ptr;
char *fil;
int lin;
{
      struct mem_debug *dl;

      if (ptr == NULL)
            return;
#if 0
      {     fprintf(ferr,"Freeing NULL pointer at ");
            goto err;
      }
#endif
      if (mem_count <= 0)
      {     fprintf(ferr,"More frees than allocs at ");
            goto err;
      }
      dl = mem_ptrtodl(ptr);
      if (dl->beforeval != BEFOREVAL)
      {
#if LPTR
            fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%lx underrun\n",ptr);
#else
            fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%x underrun\n",ptr);
#endif
            goto err2;
      }
#if SUN || SUN386 /* Bus error if we read a long from an odd address    */
      if (memcmp(&dl->data[dl->nbytes],&afterval,sizeof(AFTERVAL)) != 0)
#else
      if (*(long *) &dl->data[dl->nbytes] != AFTERVAL)
#endif
      {
#if LPTR
            fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%lx overrun\n",ptr);
#else
            fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%x overrun\n",ptr);
#endif
            goto err2;
      }
      mem_numalloc -= dl->nbytes;
      if (mem_numalloc < 0)
      {     fprintf(ferr,"error: mem_numalloc = %ld, dl->nbytes = %d\n",
                  mem_numalloc,dl->nbytes);
            goto err2;
      }

      /* Remove dl from linked list */
      if (dl->prev)
            dl->prev->next = dl->next;
      if (dl->next)
            dl->next->prev = dl->prev;

      /* Stomp on the freed storage to help detect references     */
      /* after the storage was freed.                       */
      memset((void *) dl,BADVAL,sizeof(*dl) + dl->nbytes);
      mem_count--;

      /* Some compilers can detect errors in the heap.      */
#if defined(DLC)
      {     int i;
            i = free(dl);
            assert(i == 0);
      }
#else
      free((void *) dl);
#endif
      return;

err2:
      mem_printdl(dl);
err:
      fprintf(ferr,"free'd from ");
      mem_fillin(fil,lin);
      assert(0);
      /* NOTREACHED */
}

/*******************
 * Debug version of mem_realloc().
 */

void *mem_realloc_debug(oldp,n,fil,lin)
void *oldp;
unsigned n;
char *fil;
int lin;
{   void *p;
    struct mem_debug *dl;

    if (n == 0)
    { mem_free_debug(oldp,fil,lin);
      p = NULL;
    }
    else if (oldp == NULL)
      p = mem_malloc_debug(n,fil,lin);
    else
    {
      p = mem_malloc_debug(n,fil,lin);
      if (p != NULL)
      {
          dl = mem_ptrtodl(oldp);
          if (dl->nbytes < n)
            n = dl->nbytes;
          memcpy(p,oldp,n);
          mem_free_debug(oldp,fil,lin);
      }
    }
    return p;
}

/***************************/

void mem_check()
{   register struct mem_debug *dl;

    for (dl = mem_alloclist.next; dl != NULL; dl = dl->next)
      mem_checkptr(mem_dltoptr(dl));
}

/***************************/

void mem_checkptr(p)
register void *p;
{   register struct mem_debug *dl;

    for (dl = mem_alloclist.next; dl != NULL; dl = dl->next)
    {
      if (p >= (void *) &(dl->data[0]) &&
          p < (void *)((char *)dl + sizeof(struct mem_debug)-1 + dl->nbytes))
          goto L1;
    }
    assert(0);

L1:
    dl = mem_ptrtodl(p);
    if (dl->beforeval != BEFOREVAL)
    {
#if LPTR
          fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%lx underrun\n",p);
#else
          fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%x underrun\n",p);
#endif
          goto err2;
    }
#if SUN || SUN386 /* Bus error if we read a long from an odd address    */
    if (memcmp(&dl->data[dl->nbytes],&afterval,sizeof(AFTERVAL)) != 0)
#else
    if (*(long *) &dl->data[dl->nbytes] != AFTERVAL)
#endif
    {
#if LPTR
          fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%lx overrun\n",p);
#else
          fprintf(ferr,"Pointer x%x overrun\n",p);
#endif
          goto err2;
    }
    return;

err2:
    mem_printdl(dl);
    assert(0);
}

#else

/***************************/

void *mem_malloc(numbytes)
unsigned numbytes;
{     void *p;

      if (numbytes == 0)
            return NULL;
      while (1)
      {
            p = malloc(numbytes);
            if (p == NULL)
            {     if (mem_exception())
                        continue;
            }
            else
                  mem_count++;
            break;
      }
      /*printf("malloc(%d) = x%lx\n",numbytes,p);*/
      return p;
}

/***************************/

void *mem_calloc(numbytes)
unsigned numbytes;
{     void *p;

      if (numbytes == 0)
            return NULL;
      while (1)
      {
            p = calloc(numbytes,1);
            if (p == NULL)
            {     if (mem_exception())
                        continue;
            }
            else
                  mem_count++;
            break;
      }
      /*printf("calloc(%d) = x%lx\n",numbytes,p);*/
      return p;
}

/***************************/

void *mem_realloc(oldmem_ptr,newnumbytes)
void *oldmem_ptr;
unsigned newnumbytes;
{   void *p;

    if (oldmem_ptr == NULL)
      p = mem_malloc(newnumbytes);
    else if (newnumbytes == 0)
    { mem_free(oldmem_ptr);
      p = NULL;
    }
    else
    {
      do
          p = realloc(oldmem_ptr,newnumbytes);
      while (p == NULL && mem_exception());
    }
    /*printf("realloc(x%lx,%d) = x%lx\n",oldmem_ptr,newnumbytes,p);*/
    return p;
}

/***************************/

void mem_free(ptr)
void *ptr;
{
    /*printf("free(x%lx)\n",ptr);*/
    if (ptr != NULL)
    { assert(mem_count > 0);
      mem_count--;
#if DLC
      {     int i;

            i = free(ptr);
            assert(i == 0);
      }
#else
      free(ptr);
#endif
    }
}

#endif /* MEM_DEBUG */

/***************************/

void mem_init()
{
      if (mem_inited == 0)
      {     mem_count = 0;
#if MEM_DEBUG
            mem_numalloc = 0;
            mem_maxalloc = 0;
            mem_alloclist.next = NULL;
#endif
#if defined(__ZTC__) || defined(__SC__)
            /* Necessary if mem_sfree() calls free() before any   */
            /* calls to malloc().                           */
            free(malloc(1));  /* initialize storage allocator     */
#endif
            mem_inited++;
      }
}

/***************************/

void mem_term()
{

      if (mem_inited)
      {
#if MEM_DEBUG
            register struct mem_debug *dl;

            for (dl = mem_alloclist.next; dl; dl = dl->next)
            {     fprintf(ferr,"Unfreed pointer: ");
                  mem_printdl(dl);
            }
#if 0
            fprintf(ferr,"Max amount ever allocated == %ld bytes\n",
                  mem_maxalloc);
#endif
#else
            if (mem_count)
                  fprintf(ferr,"%d unfreed items\n",mem_count);
            if (mem_scount)
                  fprintf(ferr,"%d unfreed s items\n",mem_scount);
#endif /* MEM_DEBUG */
            assert(mem_count == 0 && mem_scount == 0);
            mem_inited = 0;
      }
}

#undef next
#undef prev
#undef file
#undef line
#undef nbytes
#undef beforeval


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